PIRE Publication - Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015


Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.


Wang, Haidong
Naghavi, Mohsen
Allen, Christine
Barber, Ryan M.
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
Carter, Austin
Casey, Daniel C.
Charlson, Fiona J.
Chen, Alan Zian
Coates, Matthew M.
Coggeshall, Megan
Dandona, Lalit
Dicker, Daniel J.
Erskine, Holly E.
Ferrari, Alize J.
Fitzmaurice, Christina
Foreman, Kyle
Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
Fraser, Maya S.
Fullman, Nancy
Gething, Peter W.
Goldberg, Ellen M.
Graetz, Nicholas
Haagsma, Juanita A.
Hay, Simon I.
Huynh, Chantal
Johnson, Catherine O.
Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
Kinfu, Yohannes
Kulikoff, Xie Rachel
Kutz, Michael
Kyu, Hmwe H.
Larson, Heidi J.
Leung, Janni
Liang, Xiaofeng
Lim, Stephen S.
Lind, Margaret
Lozano, Rafael
Marquez, Neal
Mensah, George A.
Mikesell, Joe
Mokdad, Ali H.
Mooney, Meghan D.
Nguyen, Grant
Nsoesie, Elaine
Pigott, David M.
Pinho, Christine
Roth, Gregory A.
Salomon, Joshua A.
Sandar, Logan
Silpakit, Naris
Sligar, Amber
Sorensen, Reed J. D.
Stanaway, Jeffrey
Steiner, Caitlyn
Teeple, Stephanie
Thomas, Bernadette A.
Troeger, Christopher
VanderZanden, Amelia
Vollset, Stein Emil
Wanga, Valentine
Whiteford, Harvey A.
Wolock, Timothy
Zoeckler, Leo
Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
Abbafati, Cristiana
Abbas, Kaja M.
Abd-Allah, Foad
Abera, Semaw Ferede
Abreu, Daisy M. X.
Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
Achoki, Tom
Adelekan, Ademola Lukman
Ademi, Zanfina
Adou, Arsène Kouablan
Adsuar, José C.
Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko
Afshin, Ashkan
Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
Agarwal, Arnav
Agrawal, Anurag
Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
Ajala, Oluremi N.
Akanda, Ali Shafqat
Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
Akseer, Nadia
Lami, Faris Hasan Al
Alabed, Samer
Al-Aly, Ziyad
Alam, Khurshid
Alam, Noore K. M.
Alasfoor, Deena
Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed
Aldridge, Robert William
Alegretti, Miguel Angel
Aleman, Alicia V.
Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
Alexander, Lily T.
Alhabib, Samia
Ali, Raghib
Alkerwi, Ala'a
Alla, François
Allebeck, Peter
Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
Alsharif, Ubai
Altirkawi, Khalid A.
Martin, Elena Alvarez
Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
Amare, Azmeraw T.
Amegah, Adeladza Kofi
Ameh, Emmanuel A.
Amini, Heresh
Ammar, Walid
Amrock, Stephen Marc
Andersen, Hjalte H.
Anderson, Benjamin O.
Anderson, Gregory M.
Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
Aregay, Atsede Fantahun
Ärnlöv, Johan
Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic
Artaman, Al
Asayesh, Hamid
Asghar, Rana Jawad
Atique, Suleman
Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
Awasthi, Ashish
Azzopardi, Peter
Bacha, Umar
Badawi, Alaa
Bahit, Maria C.
Balakrishnan, Kalpana
Banerjee, Amitava
Barac, Aleksandra
Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
Bärnighausen, Till
Barregard, Lars
Barrero, Lope H.
Basu, Arindam
Basu, Sanjay
Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Beardsley, Justin
Bedi, Neeraj
Beghi, Ettore
Belay, Haileeyesus Adamu
Bell, Brent
Bell, Michelle L.
Bello, Aminu K.
Bennett, Derrick A.
Bensenor, Isabela M.
Berhane, Adugnaw
Bernabé, Eduardo
Betsu, Balem Demtsu
Beyene, Addisu Shunu
Bhala, Neeraj
Bhalla, Ashish
Biadgilign, Sibhatu
Bikbov, Boris
Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin
Biroscak, Brian J.
Biryukov, Stan
Bjertness, Espen
Blore, Jed D.
Blosser, Christopher D.
Bohensky, Megan A.
Borschmann, Rohan
Bose, Dipan
Bourne, Rupert R. A.
Brainin, Michael
Brayne, Carol E. G.
Brazinova, Alexandra
Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
Brenner, Hermann
Brewer, Jerry D.
Brown, Alexandria
Brown, Jonathan
Brugha, Traolach S.
Buckle, Geoffrey Colin
Butt, Zahid A.
Calabria, Bianca
Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
Campuzano, Julio Cesar
Carapetis, Jonathan R.
Cárdenas, Rosario
Carpenter, David O.
Carrero, Juan Jesus
Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
Catalá-López, Ferrán
Cavalleri, Fiorella
Cercy, Kelly
Cerda, Jorge
Chen, Wanqing
Chew, Adrienne
Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
Chibalabala, Mirriam
Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
Chowdhury, Rajiv
Christensen, Hanne
Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
Ciobanu, Liliana G.
Cirillo, Massimo
Cohen, Aaron J.
Colistro, Valentina
Colomar, Mercedes
Colquhoun, Samantha M.
Cooper, Cyrus
Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
Cortinovis, Monica
Cowie, Benjamin C.
Crump, John A.
Damsere-Derry, James
Danawi, Hadi
Dandona, Rakhi
Daoud, Farah
Darby, Sarah C.
Dargan, Paul I.
das Neves, José
Davey, Gail
Davis, Adrian C.
Davitoiu, Dragos V.
de Castro, E. Filipa
de Jager, Pieter
Leo, Diego De
Degenhardt, Louisa
Dellavalle, Robert P.
Deribe, Kebede
Deribew, Amare
Dharmaratne, Samath D.
Dhillon, Preet K.
Diaz-Torné, Cesar
Ding, Eric L.
dos Santos, Kadine Priscila Bender
Dossou, Edem
Driscoll, Tim R.
Duan, Leilei
Dubey, Manisha
Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
Ellenbogen, Richard G.
Ellingsen, Christian Lycke
Elyazar, Iqbal
Endries, Aman Yesuf
Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
Eshrati, Babak
Esteghamati, Alireza
Estep, Kara
Faghmous, Imad D. A.
Fahimi, Saman
Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
Farid, Talha A.
Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
Faro, André
Farvid, Maryam S.
Farzadfar, Farshad
Feigin, Valery L.
Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
Fernandes, Jefferson G.
Fernandes, Joao C.
Fischer, Florian
Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
Flaxman, Abraham
Foigt, Nataliya
Fowkes, F. Gerry R.
Franca, Elisabeth Barboza
Franklin, Richard C.
Friedman, Joseph
Frostad, Joseph
Fürst, Thomas
Futran, Neal D.
Gall, Seana L.
Gambashidze, Ketevan
Gamkrelidze, Amiran
Ganguly, Parthasarathi
Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho
Gebre, Teshome
Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tsewelde
Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
Geleijnse, Johanna M.
Gessner, Bradford D.
Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal
Gibney, Katherine B.
Gillum, Richard F.
Gilmour, Stuart
Giref, Ababi Zergaw
Giroud, Maurice
Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
Giussani, Giorgia
Glaser, Elizabeth
Godwin, William W.
Gomez-Dantes, Hector
Gona, Philimon
Goodridge, Amador
Gopalani, Sameer Vali
Gosselin, Richard A.
Gotay, Carolyn C.
Goto, Atsushi
Gouda, Hebe N.
Greaves, Felix
Gugnani, Harish Chander
Gupta, Rahul
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Vipin
Gutiérrez, Reyna A.
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Haile, Demewoz
Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
Halasa, Yara A.
Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
Hamidi, Samer
Hancock, Jamie
Handal, Alexis J.
Hankey, Graeme J.
Hao, Yuantao
Harb, Hilda L.
Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
Haro, Josep Maria
Havmoeller, Rasmus
Heckbert, Susan R.
Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
Heydarpour, Pouria
Hilderink, Henk B. M.
Hoek, Hans W.
Hogg, Robert S.
Horino, Masako
Horita, Nobuyuki
Hosgood, H. Dean
Hotez, Peter J.
Hoy, Damian G.
Hsairi, Mohamed
Htet, Aung Soe
Htike, Maung Maung Than
Hu, Guoqing
Huang, Cheng
Huang, Hsiang
Huiart, Laetitia
Husseini, Abdullatif
Huybrechts, Inge
Huynh, Grace
Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
Innos, Kaire
Inoue, Manami
Iyer, Veena J.
Jacobs, Troy A.
Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
Jahanmehr, Nader
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
James, Peter
Javanbakht, Mehdi
Jayaraman, Sudha P.
Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
Jeemon, Panniyammakal
Jensen, Paul N.
Jha, Vivekanand
Jiang, Guohong
Jiang, Ying
Jibat, Tariku
Jimenez-Corona, Aida
Jonas, Jost B.
Joshi, Tushar Kant
Kabir, Zubair
Kamal, Ritul
Kan, Haidong
Kant, Surya
Karch, André
Karema, Corine Kakizi
Karimkhani, Chante
Karletsos, Dimitris
Karthikeyan, Ganesan
Kasaeian, Amir
Katibeh, Marzieh
Kaul, Anil
Kawakami, Norito
Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise
Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
Kemmer, Laura
Kemp, Andrew Haddon
Kengne, Andre Pascal
Keren, Andre
Kereselidze, Maia
Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
Khader, Yousef Saleh
Khalil, Ibrahim A.
Khan, Abdur Rahman
Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
Khang, Young-Ho
Khera, Sahil
Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer
Kieling, Christian
Kim, Daniel
Kim, Yun Jin
Kissela, Brett M.
Kissoon, Niranjan
Knibbs, Luke D.
Knudsen, Ann Kristin
Kokubo, Yoshihiro
Kolte, Dhaval
Kopec, Jacek A.
Kosen, Soewarta
Koul, Parvaiz A.
Koyanagi, Ai
Krog, Norun Hjertager
Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
Kudom, Andreas A.
Kuipers, Ernst J.
Kulkarni, Veena S.
Kumar, G. Anil
Kwan, Gene F.
Lal, Aparna
Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
Lalloo, Ratilal
Lam, Hilton
Lam, Jennifer O.
Langan, Sinead M.
Lansingh, Van C.
Larsson, Anders
Laryea, Dennis Odai
Latif, Asma Abdul
Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz
Leigh, James
Levi, Miriam
Li, Yongmei
Lindsay, M. Patrice
Lipshultz, Steven E.
Liu, Patrick Y.
Liu, Shiwei
Liu, Yang
Lo, Loon-Tzian
Logroscino, Giancarlo
Lotufo, Paulo A.
Lucas, Robyn M.
Lunevicius, Raimundas
Lyons, Ronan A.
Ma, Stefan
Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro
Mackay, Mark T.
MacLachlan, Jennifer H.
Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El
Magdy, Mohammed
Razek, Abd El
Majdan, Marek
Majeed, Azeem
Malekzadeh, Reza
Manamo, Wondimu Ayele Ayele
Mandisarisa, John
Mangalam, Srikanth
Mapoma, Chabila C.
Marcenes, Wagner
Margolis, David Joel
Martin, Gerard Robert
Martinez-Raga, Jose
Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
Masiye, Felix
Mason-Jones, Amanda J.
Massano, João
Matzopoulos, Richard
Mayosi, Bongani M.
McGarvey, Stephen Theodore
McGrath, John J.
McKee, Martin
McMahon, Brian J.
Meaney, Peter A.
Mehari, Alem
Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
Melaku, Yohannes Adama
Memiah, Peter
Memish, Ziad A.
Mendoza, Walter
Meretoja, Atte
Meretoja, Tuomo J.
Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
Micha, Renata
Miller, Ted R.
Mirarefin, Mojde
Misganaw, Awoke
Mock, Charles N.
Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
Mohammadi, Alireza
Mohammed, Shafiu
Mohan, Viswanathan
Mola, Glen Liddell D.
Monasta, Lorenzo
Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez
Montero, Pablo
Montico, Marcella
Montine, Thomas J.
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
Morawska, Lidia
Morgan, Katherine
Mori, Rintaro
Mozaffarian, Dariush
Mueller, Ulrich O.
Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
Murthy, Srinivas
Musa, Kamarul Imran
Nachega, Jean B.
Nagel, Gabriele
Naidoo, Kovin S.
Naik, Nitish
Naldi, Luigi
Nangia, Vinay
Nash, Denis
Nejjari, Chakib
Neupane, Subas
Newton, Charles R.
Newton, John N.
Ng, Marie
Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean
Nguyen, Quyen Le
Nisar, Muhammad Imran
Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie
Nomura, Marika
Norheim, Ole F.
Norman, Paul E.
Norrving, Bo
Nyakarahuka, Luke
Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
Ohkubo, Takayoshi
Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola
Olivares, Pedro R.
Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
Opio, John Nelson
Oren, Eyal
Ortiz, Alberto
Osman, Majdi
Ota, Erika
Ozdemir, Raziye
Pa, Mahesh
Pandian, Jeyaraj D.
Pant, Puspa Raj
Papachristou, Christina
Park, Eun-Kee
Park, Jae-Hyun
Parry, Charles D.
Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina
Patten, Scott B.
Patton, George C.
Paul, Vinod K.
Pearce, Neil
Pedro, João Mário
Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin
Pereira, David M.
Perico, Norberto
Pesudovs, Konrad
Petzold, Max
Phillips, Michael Robert
Piel, Frédéric B.
Pillay, Julian David
Plass, Dietrich
Platts-Mills, James A.
Polinder, Suzanne
Pope, C. Arden
Popova, Svetlana
Poulton, Richie G.
Pourmalek, Farshad
Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Qorbani, Mostafa
Quame-Amaglo, Justice
Quistberg, D. Alex
Rafay, Anwar
Rahimi, Kazem
Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Rahman, Mahfuzar
Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
Rahman, Sajjad Ur
Rai, Rajesh Kumar
Rajavi, Zhale
Rajsic, Sasa
Raju, Murugesan
Rakovac, Ivo
Rana, Saleem M.
Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
Rangaswamy, Thara
Rao, Puja
Rao, Sowmya R.
Refaat, Amany H.
Rehm, Jürgen
Reitsma, Marissa B.
Remuzzi, Giuseppe
Resnikoff, Serge
Ribeiro, Antonio L.
Ricci, Stefano
Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios
Roberts, Bayard
Roca, Anna
Rojas-Rueda, David
Ronfani, Luca
Roshandel, Gholamreza
Rothenbacher, Dietrich
Roy, Ambuj
Roy, Nawal K.
Ruhago, George Mugambage
Sagar, Rajesh
Saha, Sukanta
Sahathevan, Ramesh
Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
Sanabria, Juan R.
Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores
Sanchez-Riera, Lidia
Santos, Itamar S.
Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
Sartorius, Benn
Satpathy, Maheswar
Savic, Miloje
Sawhney, Monika
Schaub, Michael P.
Schmidt, Maria Inês
Schneider, Ione J. C.
Schöttker, Ben
Schutte, Aletta E.
Schwebel, David C.
Seedat, Soraya
Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
Servan-Mori, Edson E.
Shackelford, Katya A.
Shaddick, Gavin
Shaheen, Amira
Shahraz, Saeid
Shaikh, Masood Ali
Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
Sharma, Rajesh
She, Jun
Sheikhbahaei, Sara
Shen, Jiabin
Shen, Ziyan
Shepard, Donald S.
Sheth, Kevin N.
Shetty, Balakrishna P.
Shi, Peilin
Shibuya, Kenji
Shin, Min-Jeong
Shiri, Rahman
Shiue, Ivy
Shrime, Mark G.
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Silberberg, Donald H.
Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
Silverberg, Jonathan I.
Simard, Edgar P.
Singh, Abhishek
Singh, Gitanjali M.
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Singh, Om Prakash
Singh, Prashant Kumar
Singh, Virendra
Soneji, Samir
Søreide, Kjetil
Soriano, Joan B.
Sposato, Luciano A.
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
Stein, Dan J.
Stein, Murray B.
Stranges, Saverio
Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
Sunguya, Bruno F.
Sur, Patrick
Swaminathan, Soumya
Sykes, Bryan L.
Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael
Tabb, Karen M.
Takahashi, Ken
Takala, Jukka S.
Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
Tandon, Nikhil
Tavakkoli, Mohammad
Taye, Bineyam
Taylor, Hugh R.
Ao, Braden J. Te
Tedla, Bemnet Amare
Tefera, Worku Mekonnen
Have, Margreet Ten
Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
Tesfay, Fisaha Haile
Tessema, Gizachew Assefa
Thomson, Alan J.
Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
Thrift, Amanda G.
Thurston, George D.
Tillmann, Taavi
Tirschwell, David L.
Tonelli, Marcello
Topor-Madry, Roman
Topouzis, Fotis
Towbin, Jeffrey Allen
Traebert, Jefferson
Tran, Bach Xuan
Truelsen, Thomas
Trujillo, Ulises
Tura, Abera Kenay
Tuzcu, Emin Murat
Uchendu, Uche S.
Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
Undurraga, Eduardo A.
Uthman, Olalekan A.
Dingenen, Rita Van
van Donkelaar, Aaron
Vasankari, Tommi
Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales
Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
Vidavalur, Ramesh
Vijayakumar, Lakshmi
Villalpando, Salvador
Violante, Francesco S.
Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
Wagner, Joseph A.
Wagner, Gregory R.
Wallin, Mitchell T.
Wang, Linhong
Watkins, David A.
Weichenthal, Scott
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Weintraub, Robert G.
Werdecker, Andrea
Westerman, Ronny
White, Richard A.
Wijeratne, Tissa
Wilkinson, James D.
Williams, Hywel C.
Wiysonge, Charles Shey
Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret
Wolfe, Charles D. A.
Won, Sungho
Wong, John Q.
Woolf, Anthony D.
Xavier, Denis
Xiao, Qingyang
Xu, Gelin
Yakob, Bereket
Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene
Yan, Lijing L.
Yano, Yuichiro
Yaseri, Mehdi
Ye, Pengpeng
Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin
Yip, Paul
Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
Yonemoto, Naohiro
Yonga, Gerald
Younis, Mustafa Z.
Yu, Shicheng
Zaidi, Zoubida
Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
Zannad, Faiez
Zavala, Diego E.
Zeeb, Hajo
Zeleke, Berihun M.
Zhang, Hao
Zodpey, Sanjay
Zonies, David
Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
Vos, Theo
Lopez, Alan D.
Murray, Christopher J. L.