Recent Publications



E-cigarettes as a source of toxic and potentially carcinogenic metals
   Environmental Research (2017)
    Hess, Catherine Ann ; Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Goessler, Walter; Cohen, Joanna E.; Rule, Ana Maria
Background and aims The popularity of electronic cigarette devices is growing worldwide. The health impact of e-cigarette use, however, remains unclear. E-cigarettes are marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes. The aim of this research was the characterization and quantification of toxic metal concentrations in five, nationally popular brands of cig-a-like e-cigarettes. Methods We analyzed the cartomizer liquid in 10 cartomizer refills for each of five brands by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results All of the tested metals (cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and nickel) were found in the e-liquids analyzed. Across all analyzed brands, mean (SD) concentrations ranged from 4.89 (0.893) to 1970 ( 1540 ) µg/L for lead, 53.9 ( 6.95 ) to 2110 ( 5220 ) µg/L for chromium and 58.7 (22.4) to 22,600 ( 24,400 ) µg/L for nickel. Manganese concentrations ranged from 28.7 ( 9.79 ) to 6910.2 ( 12,200 ) µg/L. We found marked variability in nickel and chromium concentration within and between brands, which may come from heating elements. Conclusion Additional research is needed to evaluate whether e-cigarettes represent a relevant exposure pathway for toxic metals in users. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Environmental Research is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)


Perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black youth in California
   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017)
    Hess, C.A. ; Antin, T.M.J. ; Annechino, R. ; Hunt, G.

Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates
   Injury Prevention (2017)
   Cryer, C.; Miller, T. R. ; Lyons, R. A.; Macpherson, A. K.; Perez, K.; Petridou, E. T.; Dessypris, N.; Davie, G. S.; Gulliver, P. J.; Lauritsen, J.; Boufous, S.; Lawrence, B. ; de Graaf, B.; Steiner, C. A.
BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. METHODS: The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large study size, we identified injury diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems.


Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
   The Lancet (2016)
   Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Gething, Peter W.; Hay, Simon I.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Pinho, Christine; Salomon, Joshua A.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdallat, Mahmud A.; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Agarwal, Arnav; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antoine, Rose Mayerline; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arora, Megha; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atique, Suleman; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Bärnighausen, Till; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Wang, Neeraj Haidong; Bedi,; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin; Biroscak, Brian J.; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Butt, Zahid A.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chavan, Laxmikant; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cortinovis, Monica; Dahiru, Tukur; Damasceno, Albertino; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, José; Leo, Diego De; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dicker, Daniel J.; Ding, Eric L.; Dossou, Edem; Dubey, Manisha; Ebel, Beth E.; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Farid, Talha A.; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa; Faro, André; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Fleming, Tom; Foigt, Nataliya; Franca, Elisabeth Barboza; Franklin, Richard C.; Fraser, Maya S.; Friedman, Joseph; Fullman, Nancy; Fürst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebremedhin, Mengistu; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Glaser, Elizabeth; Goenka, Shifalika; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hancock, Jamie; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Harun, Kimani M.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Huybrechts, Inge; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, André; Karletsos, Dimitris; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kudom, Andreas A.; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, G. Anil; Kutz, Michael J.; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Stefan; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd El; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David Joel; Marquez, Neal; Masiye, Felix; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.
Background In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015.


Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
   The Lancet (2016)
   Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Brown, Jonathan; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Smith, Alison; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Chris; VanderZanden, Amelia; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Zoeckler, Leo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adsuar, José C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Anderson, Gregory M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Bärnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Choudhury, Lincoln; Christensen, Hanne; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, José; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; Leo, Diego De; Degenhardt, Louisa; Gobbo, Liana C. Del; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C. Des; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Ding, Eric L.; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farid, Talha A.; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa; Faro, André; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Fürst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutiérrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Hassen, Tahir Ahmed; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kajungu, Dan K.; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kandel, Amit; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Larsson, Anders; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R. ; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mumford, John Everett; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Nolla, Joan M.; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pedro, João Mário; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frédéric B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Dheeraj; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynolds, Alex; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Sackey, Ben Benasco; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, João Vasco; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Soljak, Michael; Søreide, Kjetil; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. S.; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Gool, Coen H.; van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.
Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development.


"I thought if I marry the prophet I would not die": The significance of religious affiliation on marriage, HIV testing, and reproductive health practices among young married women in Zimbabwe
   SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (2016)
    Hallfors, D ; Iritani, B. ; Zhang, L. ; Hartman, S. ; Luseno, W. ; Mpofu, E.; Rusakaniko, S.

Move to improve: Creating positive exercise experiences for deconditioned people with chronic health issues
    AADE in Practice (2016)
   Hallen, E.; Lutes, E. R.; Annechino, R.

The global burden of injury: Incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
   Injury Prevention: Journal Of The International Society For Child And Adolescent Injury Prevention (2016)
   Haagsma, Juanita A.; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Barrero, Lope H.; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Franklin, Richard C.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E.; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A.; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R. ; Mock, Charles N.; Norman, Rosana E.; Orozco, Ricardo; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C.; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M.; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo
Background: The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country.; Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures.; Results: In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries.; Conclusions: Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made.; Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/


Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
   The Lancet (2016)
   Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Afshin, Ashkan; Alexander, Lily T.; Anderson, H. Ross; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Cercy, Kelly; Charlson, Fiona J.; Cohen, Aaron J.; Dandona, Lalit; Estep, Kara; Ferrari, Alize J.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Godwin, William W.; Griswold, Max; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Marczak, Laurie; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sur, Patrick J.; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wang, Haidong; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Maigeng; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Biju; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C.; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Assadi, Reza; Atique, Suleman; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Bärnighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Batis, Carolina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Broday, David M.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahill, Leah E.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Casey, Daniel C.; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Coates, Matthew M.; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cornaby, Leslie; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Rakhi; Darby, Sarah C.; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, José; Davis, Adrian C.; Davletov, Kairat; de Castro, E. Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribew, Amare; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Diaz-Torné, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Farid, Talha A.; Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa; Faro, André; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Fleming, Tom; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fürst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Goenka, Shifalika; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guillemin, Francis; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Hassen, Tahir Ahmed; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Hutchings, Sally J.; Huybrechts, Inge; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile; Inoue, Manami; Jacobs, Troy A.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jansen, Henrica A. F. M.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jin, Ye; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khera, Sahil; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Kromhout, Hans; Krueger, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Janni; Levi, Miriam; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Yichong; Liang, Juan; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; MacIntyre, Michael; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manamo, Wondimu Ayele Ayele; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Martin, Randall V.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehari, Alem; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R. ; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Misganaw, Awoke; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mola, Glen Liddell D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mullany, Erin; Mumford, John Everett; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Nangia, Vinay; Nassiri, Nariman; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olsen, Helen; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Orozco, Ricardo; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Pa, Mahesh; Pana, Adrian; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patel, Tejas; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frédéric B.; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Pope, C. Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Rao, Puja; García, Christian Aspacia Razo; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Colin D.; Rehm, Jürgen; Reinig, Nikolas; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Rivera, Juan A.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rodriguez, Alina; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roman, Yesenia; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G.; Sandar, Logan; Santomauro, Damian F.; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidhuber, Josef; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schöttker, Ben; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stöckl, Heidi; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Belaynew Wasie; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tefera, Worku Mekonnen; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thakur, J. S.; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thomas, Matthew Lloyd; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tobollik, Myriam; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi; Veerman, J. Lennert; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, Jian Li; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wubshet, Mamo; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhu, Jun; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.
Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.


Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 32 cancer groups, 1990 to 2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
   JAMA Oncology (2016)
   Fitzmaurice, Christina; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Barregard, Lars; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Brenner, Hermann; Dicker, Daniel J.; Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Hancock, Jamie; Hay, Roderick J.; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Huynh, Chantal; Hosgood, H. Dean; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kumar, G. Anil; Kutz, Michael; Lan, Qing; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Marczak, Laurie; Marquez, Neal; Mokdad, Ali H.; Pinho, Christine; Pourmalek, Farshad; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Sartorius, Benn; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shibuya, Kenji; Stanaway, Jeff; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sun, Jiandong; Takahashi, Ken; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wang, Haidong; Westerman, Ronny; Zeeb, Hajo; Zoeckler, Leo; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alabed, Samer; Alam, Noore K.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alem, Girma; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Ali, Raghib; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Amare, Azmeraw; Amoako, Yaw; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atnafu, Niguse; Awasthi, Ashish; Saleem, Huda Ba; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Boneya, Dube; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chiang, Peggy; Chibueze, Chioma; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Choi, Jee-Young; Cowie, Benjamin; Damtew, Solomon; das Neves, José; Dey, Suhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath; Dhillon, Preet; Ding, Eric; Driscoll, Tim; Ekwueme, Donatus; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Farvid, Maryam; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao; Fischer, Florian; G/Hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebru, Alemseged; Gopalani, Sameer; Hailu, Alemayehu; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; James, Spencer; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jee, Sun Ha; Kasaeian, Amir; Kedir, Muktar Sano; Khader, Yousef S.; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Leigh, James; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Markos, Desalegn; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meles, Kidanu G.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Miller, Ted R. ; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Nagel, Gabriele; Nand, Devina; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nolte, Sandra; Ogbo, Felix A.; Oladimeji, Kelechi E.; Oren, Eyal; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Pereira, David M.; Plass, Dietrich; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rana, Saleem M.; Søreide, Kjetil; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, Jun; Shiue, Ivy; Shore, Hirbo Roba; Shrime, Mark G.; So, Samuel; Soneji, Samir; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadese, Fentaw; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. S.; Tran, Bach Xuan; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wubshet Terefe, Mamo; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Naghavi, Mohsen
Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.; Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.; Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.; Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523?000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.; Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.;


Factors associated with cessation activities among a multiethnic sample of transit workers
   Journal of Smoking Cessation (2016)
    Cunradi, C.B. ; Moore, R.S. ; Battle, R.S.

Strength and comprehensiveness of school wellness policies in Southeastern U.S. school districts
   Journal of School Health (2016)
   Cox, M.J.; Ennett, S.T.; Ringwalt, C.L. ; Hanley, S.M. ; Bowling, J.M.

Recruiting diverse smokers:  Enrollment yields and cost
   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2016)
   Brodar, K.E.; Hall, M.G.; Butler, E.N.; Stein-Seroussi, A. ; Hanley, S. ; Brewer, N.T.

Identifying strategies to limit youth drinking in the home
   Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (2016)
    Bersamin, M. ; Lipperman-Kreda, S. ; Mair, C. ; Grube, J. ; Gruenewald, P.
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to better understand the situational, contextual, and social event-level characteristics that contribute to youth drinking behavior in the home. METHOD: We used survey data from 1,217 adolescents (15-18 years, 47.7% female) living in 24 midsized, noncontiguous California cities. The study focused on those who reported at least one drink during their last drinking occasion at home or a friend's home (n = 336). We obtained data about total drinks at last event as well as contextual and situational characteristics at last event, including adult presence, number of people present, participant's home or friend's home, ease of alcohol access, and gender ratio. We also gathered information on individual-level characteristics such as past-year drinking behavior, perceived drinking norms, age, ethnicity, and gender. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Among the full sample, the number of people at the event and the perceived ease of access were positively associated with an increase in number of drinks consumed. Among females, having a responsible adult present was associated with consuming fewer drinks. Among males, having more boys at the event was related to consuming fewer drinks, whereas increased perceived access to alcohol was positively associated with consuming more drinks. CONCLUSIONS: Parents may be able to manage or manipulate the home drinking environment to reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Future research is needed to explore additional contextual factors that may enable or inhibit heavy drinking.


Gendered experience of smoking stigma: Implications for tobacco control
   Critical Public Health (2016)
    Antin, T.M.J. ; Annechino, R. ; Hunt, G.; Lipperman-Kreda, S. ; Young, M.

Taking sides in e-cigarette research
   Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference (2016)
    Annechino, R. ; Antin, T.M.J

The roles of system and organizational leadership in system-wide evidence-based intervention sustainment: A mixed-method study
   Administration and Policy in Mental Health (2016)
   Aarons, G. A.; Green, A. E.; Trott, E. ; Willging, C. E. ; Torres, E. M.; Ehrhart, M. G.; Roesch, S. C.
If evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not sustained, investments are wasted and public health impact is limited. Leadership has been suggested as a key determinant of implementation and sustainment; however, little empirical work has examined this factor. This mixed-methods study framed using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) conceptual framework examines leadership in both the outer service system context and inner organizational context in eleven system-wide implementations of the same EBI across two U.S. states and 87 counties. Quantitative data at the outer context (i.e., system) and inner context (i.e., team) levels demonstrated that leadership predicted future sustainment and differentiated between sites with full, partial, or no sustainment. In the outer context positive sustainment leadership was characterized as establishing a project's mission and vision, early and continued planning for sustainment, realistic project plans, and having alternative strategies for project survival. Inner context frontline transformational leadership predicted sustainment while passive-avoidant leadership predicted non-sustainment. Qualitative results found that sustainment was associated with outer context leadership characterized by engagement in ongoing supportive EBI championing, marketing to stakeholders; persevering in these activities; taking action to institutionalize the EBI with funding, contracting, and system improvement plans; and fostering ongoing collaboration between stakeholders at state and county, and community stakeholder levels. For frontline leadership the most important activities included championing the EBI and providing practical support for service providers. There was both convergence and expansion that identified unique contributions of the quantitative and qualitative methods. Greater attention to leadership in both the outer system and inner organizational contexts is warranted to enhance EBI implementation and sustainment.


Economics of alcohol-involved traffic crashes in the USA: An input-output analysis
   Injury Prevention (2016)
    Zaloshnja, E. ; Miller, T.R. ; Lawrence, B.
Background: Preventing traffic crashes reduces crash costs paid by employers and employees. The related savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study is the first to measure the impact of traffic crash reduction on a national economy. It focuses on impaired driving crashes. Methods: We analysed the impact of the almost 50% alcohol-involved driving crash rate reduction from 1984–1986 to 2010 and the impact if such crashes in 2010 had not occurred. The analysis entered published estimates of costs that employers, consumers and governments paid because of US impaired-driving crashes as production costs and demand changes in Rutgers University's input–output model of the US economy. For example, reducing medical costs paid by employers lowers the cost of labour inputs to production while reducing vehicle repairs raises demand for other goods. Running the model at current and alternative crash rates revealed the impacts of crash reductions on economic output, gross domestic product (GDP), national income and employment. Results: Alcohol-involved crash reductions since 1984–1986 increased economic output in 2010 by an estimated $20 billion, raised GDP by $10 billion, increased US income by $6.5 billion, and created 215 000 jobs. GDP gains from alcohol-involved crash reduction contributed 5% of the $200 million compounded average annual growth in US GDP from 1985 to 2013. Eliminating remaining alcohol-involved crashes would result in similar economic gains. Conclusions: Alcohol-involved crashes drag down the US economy. On average, each of the 25.5 billion miles Americans drove impaired in 2010 reduced economic output by $0.80. Those losses are preventable.


Are community level prescription opioid overdoses associated with child harm? A spatial analysis of California zip codes, 2001–2011
   Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2016)
    Wolf, Jennifer Price ; Ponicki, William R. ; Kepple, Nancy J.; Gaidus, Andrew
Background: Non-medical prescription opioid use is increasing globally within high-income countries, particularly the United States. However, little is known about whether it is associated with negative outcomes for children. In this study, we use prescription opioid overdose as a proxy measure for non-medical prescription opioid use and ask the following: Do California communities with greater rates of non-medical prescription opioid use also have higher rates of child maltreatment and unintentional child injury? Methods: We used longitudinal population data to examine ecological associations between hospital discharges involving overdose of prescription opioids and those for child maltreatment or child injury in California zip codes between 2001 and 2011 (n = 18,517 zip-code year units) using Bayesian space-time misalignment models. Results: The percentage of hospital discharges involving prescription opioid overdose was positively associated with the number of hospital discharges for child maltreatment (relative rate = 1.089, 95% credible interval (1.004, 1.165)) and child injury (relative rate = 1.055, 95% credible interval (1.012, 1.096)) over the ten-year period, controlling for other substance use and environmental factors. Conclusions: Increases in community level prescription opioid overdoses between 2001 and 2011 are associated with a 2.06% increase in child maltreatment discharges and a 1.27% increase in discharges for child injury. Communities with higher rates of non-medical prescription opioid use may experience greater levels of child harms.


Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people
   J Gay Lesbian Ment Health (2016)
    Willging, C. E. ; Israel, T.; Ley, D.; Trott, E. M. ; DeMaria, C.; Joplin, A.; Smiley, V.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.