Moore, R. S.
; Lee, J. P.
; Martin, S. E.
; Todd, M.
; and Chu, B. C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
, vol. 6, pgs. 1341-57 (2009)This study's goal was to characterize physical and social environments of stand-alone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California's smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings and smoking behaviors. Using bivariate (chi-square) and hierarchical linear modeling analyses, we identified four correlates of patrons' indoor smoking: 1) bars serving predominantly Asian or Irish patrons, 2) ashtrays, 3) bartender smoking, and 4) female bartenders. Public health officials charged with enforcement of smokefree bar policies may need to attend to social practices within bars, and heighten perceptions of consistent enforcement of smokefree workplace laws.