; Levy, D.T.
; Gitchell, J.G.; and Blackman, K.O. Nicotine & Tobacco Research
, vol. 7, issue 6, pgs. 891-900 (2005)Accelerating the decline in smoking prevalence requires an understanding of changes in the concurrent use of and the substitution between different tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco (SLT) and cigarettes. SLT could play an important role in reducing the toll of smoking-related illness and premature mortality. Research examining the role of tobacco control policies in explaining concurrent use of SLT and cigarettes has been minimal. Using the Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplements (CPS-TUS), we examined tobacco control policies in relationship with adult males' SLT use concurrent with smoking over the period 1992-2002. Consistent with the decline in smokeless-only and cigarette-only rates, concurrent use of SLT and cigarettes declined during the period. SLT users, faced with home or workplace smoking bans, are less likely to report smoking. Smokers with a home ban appear more likely to use SLT, but in more recent years, smokers with a workplace ban are less likely to use SLT. Tobacco excise taxes do not signal substitution between cigarettes and SLT products. Understanding current use patterns of the range of tobacco products, including their interaction with available policy levers, is vital in assessing whether changes that might promote substitution of arguably less toxic SLT products for highly toxic cigarettes are likely to lead to net public health gains or losses. Findings of the present study, in concert with other research about transitional probabilities between behavioral states, will inform the design of an effective policy framework that supports the objective of reducing tobacco-related death and disease.