; Worthington, C.K.; and Jamison, P. The Journal of Educational Research
, vol. 97, issue 3, pgs. 147-157 (2004)Researchers have found that training in phonemic awareness (PA), a fundamental element for reading acquisition, is effective in varying degrees, depending on characteristics of the audience. In this study, the authors explored the relative effectiveness of 3 programs?Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The authors randomly assigned 60 students with language and reading deficits to 1 of 3 interventions. Students received three 1-hr daily intervention sessions during a 20-day summer program conducted by a large school district. Measures of PA, language-, and reading-related skills were collected and analyzed. Earobics and LiPS were associated with gains on PA measures 6 weeks after intervention. No group effects were found on language or reading measures.