Ennett, Susan T.; and Bauman, Karl E. Journal of Adolescent Research
, vol. 11, issue 2, pgs. 194-215 (1996)A social network analysis was used to describe adolescent friendship patterns and to compare them across schools and times. 1,030 9th graders at 5 high schools identified their friends at Wave 1 and again 1 yr later. The patterns of linkages identified adolescents as clique members, liaisons, and isolates. Clique membership was the modal social position pattern, but liaisons and isolates were also well represented. The proportions of adolescents representing each social position varied across schools. In all samples, cliques were homogeneous in gender, race, and mother's educational level, and were largely stable over a 1-yr period. Network analysis clearly shows discernible and repetitious friendship patterns across 5 schools, where cliques are a pervasive friendship structure.